# Mathematics

The fundamental purpose of this course is to formalize and extend the mathematics that students learned in the middle grades. The critical areas, called units, deepen and extend understanding of linear and exponential relationships by contrasting them with each other and by applying linear models to data that exhibit a linear trend, and students engage in methods for analyzing, solving, and using quadratic functions. The Standards for Mathematical Practice apply throughout each course, and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

Building on their work with linear, quadratic, and exponential functions, students extend their repertoire of functions to include polynomial, rational, and radical functions. Students work closely with the expressions that define the functions and continue to expand and hone their abilities to model situations and to solve equations, including solving quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers and solving exponential equations using the properties of logarithms. The Standards for Mathematical Practice apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

Building on their work with linear, quadratic, and exponential functions, students extend their repertoire of functions to include polynomial, rational, and radical functions.2 Students work closely with the expressions that define the functions and continue to expand and hone their abilities to model situations and to solve equations, including solving quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers and solving exponential equations using the properties of logarithms. The Mathematical Practice Standards apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

This course supports students who need additional instruction in foundational mathematics skills related to core instruction. Instruction will use explicit, systematic, and sequential approaches to mathematics instruction addressing all strands, including number sense & operations, algebraic reasoning, functions, geometric reasoning, and data analysis & probability. Teachers will use the listed benchmarks that correspond to each student’s needs.

Effective instruction matches instruction to the need of the students in the group and provides multiple opportunities to practice the skill and receive feedback. The additional time allotted for this course is in addition to core instruction. The intervention includes materials and strategies designed to supplement core instruction.

The fundamental purpose of the course in Geometry is to formalize and extend students’ geometric experiences from the middle grades. Students explore more complex geometric situations and deepen their explanations of geometric relationships, moving towards formal mathematical arguments. Important differences exist between this Geometry course and the historical approach taken in Geometry classes. For example, transformations are emphasized early in this course. Close attention should be paid to the introductory content for the Geometry conceptual category found in the high school CCSS. The Standards for Mathematical Practice apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

The fundamental purpose of the course in Geometry is to formalize and extend students’ geometric experiences from the middle grades. Students explore more complex geometric situations and deepen their explanations of geometric relationships, moving towards formal mathematical arguments. Important differences exist between this Geometry course and the historical approach taken in Geometry classes. For example, transformations are emphasized early in this course. Close attention should be paid to the introductory content for the Geometry conceptual category found in the high school CCSS. The Standards for Mathematical Practice apply throughout each course and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

The fundamental purpose of this course is to formalize and extend the mathematics that students learned in the middle grades to prepare for Algebra I. The critical areas, called units, deepen and extend understanding of linear and exponential relationships by contrasting them with each other and by applying linear models to data that exhibit a linear trend, and students engage in methods for analyzing, solving, and using quadratic functions. The Standards for Mathematical Practice apply throughout each course, and, together with the content standards, prescribe that students experience mathematics as a coherent, useful, and logical subject that makes use of their ability to make sense of problem situations.

In Mathematics for College Algebra, instructional time will emphasize five areas: (1) developing fluency with the Laws of Exponents with numerical and algebraic expressions; (2) extending arithmetic operations with algebraic expressions to include rational and polynomial expressions; (3) solving one-variable exponential, logarithmic, radical and rational equations and interpreting the viability of solutions in real-world contexts; (4) modeling with and applying linear, quadratic, absolute value, exponential, logarithmic and piecewise functions and systems of linear equations and inequalities; (5) extending knowledge of functions to include inverse and composition.

Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.

In Mathematics for Data and Financial Literacy, instructional time will emphasize five areas: (1) extending knowledge of ratios, proportions, and functions to data and financial contexts; (2) developing an understanding of basic economic and accounting principles; (3) determining advantages and disadvantages of credit accounts and short- and long-term loans; (4) developing an understanding of planning for the future through investments, insurance, and retirement plans and (5) extending knowledge of data analysis to create and evaluate reports and to make predictions.

Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.

Enables students to develop concepts and skills in advanced algebra, analytic geometry, and trigonometry. Selected topics include polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions; trigonometric functions and their inverses; and trigonometric identities and equations.

**Prerequisite: Algebra II

Emphasizes concepts of statistics. Statistical methods and measurements are developed in the context of applications. Course objectives will include, but not be limited to organization and interpretation of data using various graph formats calculation of measures of central tendency, including mean, median, mode, and range, calculation and interpretation of variance and standard deviation, determination of regression equations and calculation of correlation coefficients for sets of data, application of various sampling techniques, usage of various counting methods, including the Fundamental Counting Principle, permutations, and combinations, calculation and interpretation of probability for singular and compound events, interpretation and formulation of normal distributions, and application of the general principles of hypothesis testing.

Enables students to develop knowledge and skills in calculus concepts while strengthening and extending concepts learned in previous mathematics courses. Selected topics include limits, continuity, derivatives, definite integrals, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The ultimate goal will be to prepare students to take the AP exam.

**Prerequisite: Pre-Calculus

The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data. Students are exposed to four broad conceptual themes: Exploring Data, Sampling, and Experimentation, Anticipating Patterns, and Statistical Inference. The ultimate goal will be to prepare students to take the AP exam.